Some athletes take testosterone to increase muscle mass, though it has a pretty big effect on the reproductive cycle. The male reproductive function depends on testosterone, LH and FSH. Leydig cells, that are found in the tissue between the seminiferous tubules in testes, release testosterone. Testosterone is basically a hormone that controls the growth, functions, and form of the males reproductive system.
LH and FSH are released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and also the hypothalamus controls the releasing of LH, FSH, and testosterone, meaning it controls the formation of the sperm. Now that we have covered that we can explain the effects that increasing testosterone would have on the body of a male.
Now if the testosterone level in a males blood were to be low, the hypothalamus would secrete GnRH, secreting this hormone prompts the pituitary’s anterior lobe to release LH and FSH. The releasing of LH then stimulates the Leydig cells to secrete testosterone, which them causes diploid germ cells to become sperm. This whole cycle is only the effect of a low level of testosterone. Now if the level is high, it stimulates the releasing of GnRH. Also, when the sperm count is high, Sertoli cells then release inhibin, a hormone that acts on the hypothalamus and pituitary to help the secreting of GnRH and FSH. Next, feedback loops to the hypothalamus kick in, and testosterone secretion and sperm formation decline.
What does this mean for males? Well, testosterone governs the development of secondary sexual traits. This means that this prolonged use of increased testosterone, is over time going to actually lower testosterone because of the natural reaction to it. The body naturally tries to bring the level down to a normal rate, however if you are constantly putting more and more into you, you are going to be producing less and less in the long run. You may be tricking your body for the time being, but after a while it is going to catch up with you.
When this is the case, your body is going to take on less “masculine” features, also known as secondary sexual traits, such as facial hair growth, and a deep voice. Studies have shown that once you stop taking testosterone and increasing your testosterone level, your body is not used to it and it starts to almost take on more so female characteristics.
Also, a decline in testosterone secretion and sperm formation can lead to other matters as well. These men are not going to be feeling as normal, because of this decline they are going to have less of a sexual drive, and in the big picture will also end up being less fertile.